Among various energy storage technologies, pumped hydro energy storage and compressed air energy storage are more suitable for grid peak regulation; battery energy storage and phase change energy storage are more suitable for small and medium-scale energy storage and user demand side management; superconducting electromagnetic energy storage and Flywheel energy storage is more suitable for power grid frequency regulation and power quality assurance; supercapacitor energy storage is more suitable for electric vehicle energy storage and hybrid energy storage. Figures 1 and 2 are power, energy and cost comparisons of various energy storage technologies based on information provided by the American Electric Power Storage Association.
Excessive cost is a common problem that limits the widespread application of energy storage technology in wind power generation. Improving energy conversion efficiency and reducing costs are important directions for future energy storage technology research. With the continuous development and popularization of wind power generation and the development and progress of various energy storage technologies, energy storage technology will be more widely used in wind power generation systems.
In wind power generation, the selection of energy storage methods needs to consider various factors such as rated power, bridging time, technology maturity, system cost, and environmental conditions. The energy storage of wind farms must first realize the function of power quality management. Supercapacitors, high-speed flywheels, superconductors, sodium-sulfur and flow battery energy storage systems can smooth the output power of wind farms and provide voltage support in the event of external grid failures. Maintain grid stability; secondly, lead-acid batteries, new sodium-sulfur battery and flow battery energy storage systems have peak shaving functions, which are more suitable for large-scale storage of wind power.